Malcolm (Mac) Wallace, the son of a farmer, was born in Mount Pleasant, Texas, in October, 1921. Four years later the family moved to Dallas. He was the son of Alvin James Wallace, Sr. (1895-1973), a cement and construction contractor, according to the 1930 US Census, and Alice Marie Riddle (1897-1959). In 1939, Wallace graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School in Dallas. He served in the United States Marine Corps.
After completing basic training Wallace was sent to Hawaii where he served on the aircraft carrier USS Lexington. The following year Wallace fell from a ladder and badly injured his back. On 25th September, 1940, he was medically discharged and he returned to Dallas.
In 1941 Wallace became a student at the University of Texas in Austin. He began to take an interest in politics and was elected president of the Student Union. In October, 1944, Homer P. Rainey, president of the University of Texas and an outspoken supporter of the American Socialist Party, was fired. Wallace led a protest march of 8,000 students but the campaign to have Rainey reinstated ended in failure. Wallace graduated in June, 1947. The following month he married Mary DuBose Barton, the daughter of a Methodist preacher.
While he was working on his doctorate at Columbia University he taught at Long Island University, the University of Texas and the University of North Carolina. It was at this time that Edward Clark introduced Wallace to Lyndon B. Johnson and in October, 1950, he began working with the United States Department of Agriculture in Texas.
Wallace began having an affair with LBJ’s sister, Josefa Johnson. Josefa was also having a relationship with John Kinser, the owner of a golf course in Austin. Kinser asked Josefa to approach her brother for financial help. When Johnson refused it is believed that Kinser resorted to blackmail.
According to Barr McClellan, the author of Blood, Money & Power: How LBJ Killed JFK, Kinser asked Josefa if she could arrange for her brother to loan him some money. Johnson interpreted this as a blackmail threat (Josefa had told Kinser about some of her brother’s corrupt activities).
On 22nd October, 1951, Mac Wallace went to Kinser’s miniature golf course. After finding Kinser in his golf shop, he shot him several times before escaping in his station wagon. A customer at the golf course had heard the shooting and managed to make a note of Wallace’s license plate. The local police force was able to use this information to arrest Wallace.
Wallace was charged with murder but was released on bail after Edward Clark arranged for two of Johnson’s financial supporters, M. E. Ruby and Bill Carroll, to post bonds on behalf of the defendant. Johnson’s attorney, John Cofer, also agreed to represent Wallace.
On 1st February, 1952, Wallace resigned from his government job in order to distance himself from Lyndon B. Johnson. His trial began seventeen days later. Wallace did not testify. Cofer admitted his client’s guilt but claimed it was an act of revenge as Kinser had been sleeping with Wallace’s wife.
The jury found Wallace guilty of” murder with malice afore-thought”. Eleven of the jurors were for the death penalty. The twelfth argued for life imprisonment. Judge Charles O. Betts overruled the jury and announced a sentence of five years imprisonment. He suspended the sentence and Wallace was immediately freed.
Thirty-year-old “Mac” Wallace stared intently at each of the 12 jurors as they filed into the still-as-a-tomb courtroom. As the solemn-faced men, weary from nine days of confinement and strain, took their seats in the jury box for the last time, bright sunlight flashed from Wallace’s dark, horn rimmed glasses.
If there was tension within him when Court Clerk Pearl Smith cleared her throat to read the verdict, Wallace kept it out of sight. No trace of feeling crossed his face as the clerk read the verdict of the jury: guilty of murder with malice in the October gun slaying of Golf Professional “Doug” Kinser.
Still no expression when the sentence was read: five years in the State Penitentiary. Then came the recommendation – suspended sentence – and for a fleeting moment Wallace’s mask broke. A faint smile played about the corners of his mouth….
Judge Charles O. Betts had warned that there would be no demonstration of any kind when the verdict was read. There was none; only a low “hum” in the half-filled courtroom.
According to Bill Adler of The Texas Observer, several of the jurors telephoned John Kinser’s parents to apologize for agreeing to a “suspended sentence, but said they did so only because threats had been made against their families.”
Edward Clark met Lyndon B. Johnson arranged for Wallace to obtain a job with the Luscombe Aircraft Corporation. This became part of Ling-Tempco-Vought ( LTV), a conglomerate funded by Clark’s clients in the oil industry. He eventually became manager of the purchasing department.
In 1960 Henry Marshall was asked by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration to investigate the activities of Billie Sol Estes. Marshall discovered that over a two year period, Estes had purchased 3,200 acres of cotton allotments from 116 different farmers. Marshall wrote to his superiors in Washington on 31st August, 1960, that: “The regulations should be strengthened to support our disapproval of every case (of allotment transfers)”.
When he heard the news, Billie Sol Estes sent his lawyer, John P. Dennison, to meet Marshall in Robertson County. At the meeting on 17th January, 1961, Marshall told Dennison that Estes was clearly involved in a “scheme or device to buy allotments, and will not be approved, and prosecution will follow if this operation is ever used.”
Marshall was disturbed that as a result of sending a report of his meeting to Washington, he was offered a new post at headquarters. He assumed that Bille Sol Estes had friends in high places and that they wanted him removed from the field office in Robertson County. Marshall refused what he considered to be a bribe.
According to Billie Sol Estes he had a meeting with Clifton C. Carter and Lyndon B. Johnson about Henry Marshall. Johnson suggested that Marshall be promoted out of Texas. Estes agreed and replied: “Let’s transfer him, let’s get him out of here. Get him a better job, make him an assistant secretary of agriculture.” However, Marshall rejected the idea of being promoted in order to keep him quiet.
Estes, Johnson and Carter had another meeting on 17th January, 1961, to discuss what to do about Henry Marshall. Also at the meeting was Mac Wallace. After it was pointed out that Marshall had refused promotion to Washington, Johnson said: “It looks like we’ll just have to get rid of him.” Wallace, who Estes described as a hitman, was given the assignment.
On 3rd June, 1961, Marshall was found dead on his farm by the side of his Chevy Fleetside pickup truck. His rifle lay beside him. He had been shot five times with his own rifle. Soon after County Sheriff Howard Stegall arrived, he decreed that Marshall had committed suicide. No pictures were taken of the crime scene, no blood samples were taken of the stains on the truck (the truck was washed and waxed the following day), no check for fingerprints were made on the rifle or pickup.
Billie Sol Estes later told the grand jury that he met Mac Wallace and Clifton C. Carter at his home in Pecos after Henry Marshall was killed. Wallace described how he waited for Marshall at his farm. He planned to kill him and make it appear as if Marshall committed suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning. However, Marshall fought back and he was forced to shoot him with his own rifle. He quoted Carter as saying that Wallace “sure did botch it up.” Johnson was now forced to use his influence to get the authorities in Texas to cover-up the murder.
Marshall’s wife (Sybil Marshall) and brother (Robert Marshall) refused to believe he had committed suicide and posted a $2,000 reward for information leading to a murder conviction. The undertaker, Manley Jones, also reported: “To me it looked like murder. I just do not believe a man could shoot himself like that.” The undertaker’s son, Raymond Jones, later told the journalist, Bill Adler in 1986: “Daddy said he told Judge Farmer there was no way Mr. Marshall could have killed himself. Daddy had seen suicides before. JPs depend on us and our judgments about such things. we see a lot more deaths than they do. But in this case, Daddy said, Judge Farmer told him he was going to put suicide on the death certificate because the sheriff told him to.” As a result, Lee Farmer returned a suicide verdict: “death by gunshot, self-inflicted.”
Sybil Marshall hired an attorney, W. S. Barron, in order to persuade the Robertson County authorities to change the ruling on Marshall’s cause of death. One man who did believe that Marshall had been murdered was Texas Ranger Clint Peoples. He had reported to Colonel Homer Garrison, director of the Texas Department of Public Safety, that it “would have been utterly impossible for Mr. Marshall to have taken his own life.”
Peoples also interviewed Nolan Griffin, a gas station attendant in Robertson County. Griffin claimed that on the day of Marshall’s death, he had been asked by a stranger for directions to Marshall’s farm. A Texas Ranger artist, Thadd Johnson, drew a facial sketch based on a description given by Griffin. Peoples eventually came to the conclusion that this man was Mac Wallace.
In the spring of 1962, Billie Sol Estes was arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on fraud and conspiracy charges. Soon afterwards it was disclosed by the Secretary of Agriculture, Orville L. Freeman, that Henry Marshall had been a key figure in the investigation into the illegal activities of Billie Sol Estes. As a result, the Robertson County grand jury ordered that the body of Henry Marshall should be exhumed and an autopsy performed. After eight hours of examination, Dr. Joseph A. Jachimczyk confirmed that Marshall had not committed suicide. Jachimczyk also discovered a 15 percent carbon monoxide concentration in Marshall’s body. Jachimczyk calculated that it could have been as high as 30 percent at the time of death.
On 4th April, 1962, George Krutilek, Estes chief accountant, was found dead. Despite a severe bruise on Krutilek’s head, the coroner decided that he had also committed suicide. The next day, Estes, and three business associates, were indicted by a federal grand jury on 57 counts of fraud. Two of these men, Harold Orr and Coleman Wade, died before the case came to court. At the time it was said they committed suicide but later Estes was to claim that both men were murdered by Mac Wallace in order to protect the political career of Lyndon B. Johnson.
The Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations also began to look into the case of Billie Sol Estes. Leonard C. Williams, a former assistant to Henry Marshall, testified about the evidence the department acquired against Estes. Orville L. Freeman also admitted that Marshall was a man “who left this world under questioned circumstances.” On 27th July one witness testified that Lyndon B. Johnson was getting a rake-off from the federal agricultural subsidies that Estes had been obtaining.
It was eventually discovered that three officials of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in Washington had received bribes from Billie Sol Estes. Red Jacobs, Jim Ralph and Bill Morris were eventually removed from their jobs. However, further disclosures suggested that the Secretary of Agriculture, might be involved in the scam. In September, 1961, Billie Sol Estes had been fined $42,000 for illegal cotton allotments. Two months later, Freeman appointed Estes to the National Cotton Advisory Board.
It was also revealed that Billie Sol Estes told Wilson C. Tucker, deputy director of the Agriculture Department’s cotton division, on 1st August, 1961, that he threatened to “embarrass the Kennedy administration if the investigation were not halted”. Tucker went onto testify: “Estes stated that this pooled cotton allotment matter had caused the death of one person and then asked me if I knew Henry Marshall”. As Tucker pointed out, this was six months before questions about Marshall’s death had been raised publicly.
However, the cover-up continued. Tommy G. McWilliams, the FBI agent in charge of the Henry Marshall investigation, came to the conclusion that Marshall had indeed committed suicide. He wrote: “My theory was that he shot himself and then realized he wasn’t dead.” He then claimed that he then tried to kill himself by inhaling carbon monoxide from the exhaust pipe of his truck. McWilliams claimed that Marshall had used his shirt to make a hood over the exhaust pipe. Even J. Edgar Hoover was not impressed with this theory. He wrote on 21st May, 1962: “I just can’t understand how one can fire five shots at himself.”
Joseph A. Jachimczyk also disagreed with the FBI report. He believed that the bruise on Marshall’s forehead had been caused by a “severe blow to the head”. Jachimczyk also rejected the idea that Marshall had used his shirt as a hood. He pointed out that “if this were done, soot must have necessarily been found on the shirt; no such was found.”
The Robertson County grand jury continued to investigate the death of Henry Marshall. However, some observers were disturbed by the news that grand jury member, Pryse Metcalfe, was dominating proceedings. Metcalfe was County Sheriff Howard Stegall’s son-in-law.
On 4th April, 1962, George Krutilek, Estes chief accountant, was found dead. Despite a severe bruise on Krutilek’s head, the coroner decided that he had also committed suicide. The next day, Estes, and three business associates, were indicted by a federal grand jury on 57 counts of fraud. Two of these men, Harold Orr and Coleman Wade, later died in suspicious circumstances. At the time it was said they committed suicide but later Estes was to claim that both men were murdered by Mac Wallace in order to protect the political career of Lyndon B. Johnson.
In June, 1962, Billie Sol Estes, appeared before the grand jury. He was accompanied by John Cofer, a lawyer who represented Lyndon B. Johnson when he was accused of ballot-rigging when elected to the Senate in 1948 and Mac Wallace when he was charged with the murder of John Kinser. Billie Sol Estes spent almost two hours before the grand jury, but he invoked the Texas version of the Fifth Amendment and refused to answer most questions on grounds that he might incriminate himself.
Tommy G. McWilliams of the FBI also appeared before the grand jury and put forward the theory that Henry Wallace had committed suicide. Dr. Joseph A. Jachimczyk also testified that “if in fact this is a suicide, it is the most unusual one I have seen during the examination of approximately 15,000 deceased persons.”
McWilliams did admit that it was “hard to kill yourself with a bolt-action 22”. This view was shared by John McClellan, a member of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. He posed for photographs with a .22 caliber rifle similar to Marshall’s. McClellan pointed out: “It doesn’t take many deductions to come to the irrevocable conclusion that no man committed suicide by placing the rifle in that awkward position and then (cocking) it four times more.”
Despite the evidence presented by Jachimczyk, the grand jury agreed with McWilliams. It ruled that after considering all the known evidence, the jury considers it “inconclusive to substantiate a definite decision at this time, or to overrule any decision heretofore made.” Later, it was disclosed that some jury members believed that Marshall had been murdered. Ralph McKinney blamed Pryse Metcalfe for this decision. “Pryse was as strong in the support of the suicide verdict as anyone I have ever seen in my life, and I think he used every influence he possibly could against the members of the grand jury to be sure it came out with a suicide verdict.”
Billie Sol Estes trial began in October 1962. John Cofer, who was also Lyndon Johnson’s lawyer, refused to put Estes on the witness stand. Estes was found guilty of fraud and sentenced to eight years in prison. Federal proceedings against Estes began in March 1963. He was eventually charged with fraud regarding mortgages of more that $24 million. Estes was found guilty and sentenced to fifteen years in prison.
The Permanent Investigations Committee continued to look into the case of Billie Sol Estes. President John F. Kennedy now began considering dropping Lyndon B. Johnson as his running-mate in the next presidential election. Rumours began to circulate that Terry Sanford of North Carolina would be the next vice president.
According to Barr McClellan it was now decided by Edward Clark that the investigation into Billie Sol Estes and Bobby Baker had to be brought to an end. McClellan claims that Clark recruited Wallace to organize the assassination of John F. Kennedy. When Johnson became president he managed to bring an end to the Senate investigations into Estes and Baker.
McClellan later claimed that the killing of Kennedy was paid for by oil millionaires such as Clint Murchison and Haroldson L. Hunt. McClellan claims that Clark got $2 million for this work. The death of Kennedy allowed the oil depletion allowance to be kept at 27.5 per cent. It remained unchanged during the Johnson presidency. According to McClellan this resulted in a saving of over $100 million to the American oil industry. Soon after Johnson left office it dropped to 15 per cent.
Wallace went to work for Harry Lewis and L & G Oil. In 1970 he returned to Dallas and began pressing Edward Clark for more money for his part in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. According to Barr McClellan it was then decided to kill Wallace. “He had to be eliminated. After driving to see his daughter in Troup, Texas, he went by L & G’s offices in Longview, Texas. There his exhaust was rigged for part of it to flow into his car.”On 7th January, 1971, Malcolm Wallace was killed while driving into Pittsburg, Texas. He appeared to have fallen asleep and after leaving the road crashed his car. Wallace died of massive head injuries.
Soon afterwards Clifton C. Carter died aged 53. 1971 was also the year Billie Sol Estes was due to leave prison. According to Clint Peoples, a Texas Ranger based in Austin, Billie Sol Estes had promised to tell the full story of the death of Henry Marshall when he obtained his freedom.
On 9th August, 1984, Estes’ lawyer, Douglas Caddy, wrote to Stephen S. Trott at the U.S. Department of Justice. In the letter Caddy claimed that Wallace, Billie Sol Estes, Lyndon B. Johnson and Cliff Carter had been involved in the murders of Henry Marshall, George Krutilek, Harold Orr, Ike Rogers, Coleman Wade, Josefa Johnson, John Kinser and John F. Kennedy. Caddy added: “Mr. Estes is willing to testify that LBJ ordered these killings, and that he transmitted his orders through Cliff Carter to Mac Wallace, who executed the murders.”
In May 1998 Walt Brown called a press conference in Dallas to discuss a previously unidentified fingerprint at the “sniper’s nest” in the Texas School Book Depository. According to Brown this fingerprint had now been identified as belonging to Wallace.
In 2003 Barr McClellan published Blood, Money & Power: How LBJ Killed JFK. In the book McClellan argues that Lyndon B. Johnson and Edward Clark were involved in the planning and cover-up of the assassination of John F. Kennedy. McClellan also named Wallace as one of the assassins. The killing of Kennedy was paid for by oil millionaires such as Clint Murchison and Haroldson L. Hunt. McClellan claims that Clark got $2 million for this work.
In 1961, Wallace left Texas to go to Anaheim, Calif., to work for Ling Electronics. The change of jobs is what prompted the 1961 background check, said one of the former Navy intelligence officers. The officer, who conducted the background check, said “There was an investigation; that I can verify.” He asked that his name not be used. The second Navy intelligence officer, who supervised the Texas end of the background check and now works in Dallas, confirmed that the report was compiled and forwarded to Washington.
Wallace had been active in politics while at the University of Texas, and authorities who investigated the Kinser murder said they found information linking Wallace to Communist Party activity in the United States, according to one investigator, who also wished that his name not be used.
Former Texas Ranger Clint Peoples, who investigated the Kinser murder, said the Navy intelligence officer who compiled the background report indicated to him in November 1961 that Johnson may have been a factor behind Wallace’s employment with the defense contractors. “I was furious that they would even consider a security clearance for Wallace with the background he had,” said Peoples, who is a U. S. Marshal in Dallas. “I asked him (the intelligence officer) how in the world Wallace could get the security clearance and he said ‘politics,” Peoples said. “I asked who could be so strong and powerful in politics that he could get a clearance for a man like this, and he said “the vice president.”